Salts formation , The chemical formula of salts and its naming

Salts formation

Salts are abundantly found in Earth’s crust , They are also found dissolved in the seawater , Cation is a positive ion ( M+ ) of the base ( basic radical ) , Anion is a negative ion ( X ) of the acid ( acidic radical ) , They are combined together to form salt  M+X .

Example : Formation of potassium nitrate salt : K+NO3K+ is Cation ( basic radical ) , NO3 is Anion ( acidic radical ) , When potassium hydroxide reacts with nitric acid , potassium nitrate salt is produced :

K+NO3 ( aq ) + H+NO3 ( aq ) → K+NO3 ( aq ) + H2 O ( l )

The chemical formula of salts and its naming

Reading of the chemical name of the mineral salt does not differ from the organic salt , as follows : The chemical name of salts formed from two parts , The first part refers to the basic radical ( cation ) , while the second part refers to the acidic radical ( anion ) , such as Sodium chloride & Potassium acetate .

The chemical formula of mineral salt differs from that of organic salt , In the case of mineral salt the basic radical is written firstly , then the acidic radical ,  In the case of organic salt the acidic radical is written firstly , then the basic radical .

Salts

Salts

Salts of mineral acid such as K+NO3K+ ( potassium is Basic radical ) , NO3 ( nitrate is acidic radical ) , Salts of organic acid such as CH3COOK+K+ ( Potassium is basic radical ) , CH3COO ( acetate is acidic radical ) .

If the salt contains hydrogen in its acidic radical , we have to add either : ( Bi ) or ( hydrogen) before the name of its acidic radical , such as Na+HSO4 , Sodium bisulphate or Sodium hydrogen sulphate .

In the case of metals that have more than one valence , we have to write a Latin number ( I , II , III ) which refers to the valence of the metal , such as Fe2+SO42-  Iron ( II ) sulphate , Fe23+(SO4)32- , Iron ( III ) sulphate .

The chemical formula of the salt depends on the acid which represents the source of the anion , the valence of the anion and action .

FeCl3 is the named as iron ( III ) chloride , while AlCl3 is aluminum chloride , although the valence of iron and aluminum is 3 in the two salts , because iron has two valencies ( II , III ) , while aluminum has only one valence ( III ) .

Some acids have more than one type of salts , due to the number of hydrogen atoms in the acid molecule .

Monobasic acids form only one type of salts like :

Nitric acid HNO3 → forms nitrate salts only such as potassium nitrate KNO3 , Lead ( II ) nitrate Pb(NO3)2 , Iron (III) nitrate Fe(NO3)3 .

Hydrochloric acid HCl → forms chloride salts only such as Sodium chloride NaCl , Magnesium chloride MgCl2 , Aluminum chloride AlCl3 .

Acetic acid CH3COOH→ forms acetate salts only such as potassium acetate CH3COOK , Copper ( II) acetate (CH3COO)2Cu , Iron ( III) acetate (CH3COO)3Fe   .

Diabasic acids form two types of salts like :

Sulphuric acid H2SO4 → forms sulphate salts ( Sodium sulphate Na2SO4 , Copper (II) sulphate CuSO4 ) and bisulphate salts ( Sodium bisulphate NaHSO4 , Aluminum bisulphate Al(HSO4)3 ) .

Carbonic acid H2CO3 → forms carbonate salts ( Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 , Calcium carbonate CaCO3 ) and bicarbonate salts ( Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 , Magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 ) .

Tribasic acids form three types of salts like :

Phosphoric acid ( H3PO4 ) forms three types of salts which are Dihydrogen phosphate group H2PO4 , Hydrogen phosphate group HPO42-& phosphate group PO43- .

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