Salts formation , The chemical formula of salts and its naming
Salts are abundantly found in Earth’s crust , They are also found dissolved in the seawater , Cation is a positive ion ( M+ ) of the base ( basic radical ) , Anion is a negative ion ( X− ) of the acid ( acidic radical ) , They are combined together to form salt M+X− .
Example : Formation of potassium nitrate salt : K+NO3− , K+ is Cation ( basic radical ) , NO3− is Anion ( acidic radical ) , When potassium hydroxide reacts with nitric acid , potassium nitrate salt is produced :
K+NO3− ( aq ) + H+NO3− ( aq ) → K+NO3− ( aq ) + H2 O ( l )
The chemical formula of salts and its naming
Reading of the chemical name of the mineral salt does not differ from the organic salt , as follows : The chemical name of salts formed from two parts , The first part refers to the basic radical ( cation ) , while the second part refers to the acidic radical ( anion ) , such as Sodium chloride & Potassium acetate .
The chemical formula of mineral salt differs from that of organic salt , In the case of mineral salt the basic radical is written firstly , then the acidic radical , In the case of organic salt the acidic radical is written firstly , then the basic radical .
Salts of mineral acid such as K+NO3− , K+ ( potassium is Basic radical ) , NO3− ( nitrate is acidic radical ) , Salts of organic acid such as CH3COO−K+ , K+ ( Potassium is basic radical ) , CH3COO− ( acetate is acidic radical ) .
If the salt contains hydrogen in its acidic radical , we have to add either : ( Bi ) or ( hydrogen) before the name of its acidic radical , such as Na+HSO4− , Sodium bisulphate or Sodium hydrogen sulphate .
In the case of metals that have more than one valence , we have to write a Latin number ( I , II , III ) which refers to the valence of the metal , such as Fe2+SO42- Iron ( II ) sulphate , Fe23+(SO4)32- , Iron ( III ) sulphate .
The chemical formula of the salt depends on the acid which represents the source of the anion , the valence of the anion and action .
FeCl3 is the named as iron ( III ) chloride , while AlCl3 is aluminum chloride , although the valence of iron and aluminum is 3 in the two salts , because iron has two valencies ( II , III ) , while aluminum has only one valence ( III ) .
Monobasic acids form only one type of salts like :
Nitric acid HNO3 → forms nitrate salts only such as potassium nitrate KNO3 , Lead ( II ) nitrate Pb(NO3)2 , Iron (III) nitrate Fe(NO3)3 .
Hydrochloric acid HCl → forms chloride salts only such as Sodium chloride NaCl , Magnesium chloride MgCl2 , Aluminum chloride AlCl3 .
Acetic acid CH3COOH→ forms acetate salts only such as potassium acetate CH3COOK , Copper ( II) acetate (CH3COO)2Cu , Iron ( III) acetate (CH3COO)3Fe .
Diabasic acids form two types of salts like :
Sulphuric acid H2SO4 → forms sulphate salts ( Sodium sulphate Na2SO4 , Copper (II) sulphate CuSO4 ) and bisulphate salts ( Sodium bisulphate NaHSO4 , Aluminum bisulphate Al(HSO4)3 ) .
Carbonic acid H2CO3 → forms carbonate salts ( Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 , Calcium carbonate CaCO3 ) and bicarbonate salts ( Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 , Magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 ) .
Tribasic acids form three types of salts like :
Phosphoric acid ( H3PO4 ) forms three types of salts which are Dihydrogen phosphate group H2PO4− , Hydrogen phosphate group HPO42-& phosphate group PO43- .