The volcanoes and the safety precautions must be taken at the occurrence of the volcanoes .

The volcanoes

There are thousands of volcanoes on the Earth’s surface . But sixty one only of them are active as an evidence of the permanent activities and movement beneath the Earth’s crust .

The volcano is an opening in the Earth’s crust which permits the passage of the trapped gases and the molten materials ( lava )  .

The causes of the volcano occurrence :

Volcanoes have more dangerous destructive effects .
 lava flows cover and destruct whole towns and villages .

The direct cause of the volcano occurrence is the presence of weak parts in the Earth’s crust , where molten materials are going out to the Earth’s surface .

Parts of volcano :

It consists of three parts which are : 

  1. The volcanic vent : It  is an opening lies at the top of the volcano .
  2. The volcanic pipe ( or neck ) which is a cylindrical cavity that connects the Earth’s interior with the surface , through which the magma moves during its ascendence .
  3. Volcano cone which is the body of the volcano . It consists of molten materials after their solidification and accumulation around the volcanic vent

The products of volcano :

The materials ejected during the volcanic eruption are fragmented materials , The lava and the volcanic gases .

  1. The fragmented materials which are materials that the volcano emanates . These materials are different in size ranging from big projectiles to the volcanic ashes .

  2. Lava ( or lava flows )  which are molten materials mass that spreads on the volcanic sides .

  3. The volcanic gases which are the fused ( mixed ) gases with the magma and the most important of them are water vapour and oxides of carbon , nitrogen and sulphur . 

Harms of volcanoes :

  1. The Lava and the lava flows cover and destruct whole towns and villages .

  2. Spreading of the poisonous gases and the volcanic dusts  into far places and they cover large areas .

  3. The fire catches in the forests and neighbouring places to the volcano and causes a lot of damage .

  4. The volcanoes destroy the cultivated lands near it .

The benefits of volcanoes : 

  1. In some countries , the thermal energy resulted from the volcano is used to produce the electricity .

  2. The volcanic projectiles and ashes form more fertile soil , So , the most important crops are produced  .
  3. They form new islands in the seas , and increase the area of lands .
  4. The volcanic rocks  are produced by the volcanoes , and they have great economic values .

Safety and security precautions that must be taken at the occurrence of volcanoes :

  • During the volcanoes , we must evaluate the people from the neighbouring areas of the volcano  as soon as possible .

  • To avoid the poisonous gases emanated  from the volcanoes , The people must take  account of the instructions of the forecasting of  the wind direction  .   


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