Anesthesia types , advantages and disadvantages

General anesthesia (GA) is the state of induced unconsciousness , It is the state produced when the patient receives the medications for the amnesia , the analgesia , the muscle paralysis , and the sedation , The anesthetized patient can be thought of as being in a controlled , reversible state of unconsciousness .

Advantages of Anesthesia

General anesthesia enables the patient to tolerate the surgical procedures that would otherwise inflict the unbearable pain , the potentiate extreme physiologic exacerbations , There are three components to the anesthesia , They are Analgesia ( the pain relief ) , Amnesia ( the loss of memory ) And Immobilisation .

General anesthesia reduces the intraoperative patient awareness and recall , It allows the proper muscle relaxation for the prolonged periods of time , It facilitates complete control of the airway , the breathing, and the circulation , It can be used in cases of sensitivity to the local anesthetic agent , It can be administered without moving the patient from the supine position .

General anesthesia can be adapted easily to the procedures of unpredictable duration or extent , It can be administered rapidly and it is reversible , The patient is not unduly stressed during the procedure , It allows complete stillness over prolonged periods of time , And it permits the surgery in widely separated areas of the body at the same time .

The anesthetic

The anesthetic

The local anesthesia injection numbs just the part of your body requiring minor surgery or a procedure ( numbing the small area ) ,The side effects of local anesthesia injection are minimal and they are related to how much the anesthesia is injected .

Disadvantages of Anesthesia

General anesthesia requires the increased complexity of care and the associated costs , It requires some degree of preoperative patient preparation , It is associated with less serious complications such as the nausea or the vomiting , the headache , shivering , and the delayed return to the normal mental functioning .

General anesthesia is associated with the malignant hyperthermia , the rare inherited muscular condition due to the exposure to some general anesthetic agents that results in the acute and potentially lethal temperature rise , the hypercarbia , the metabolic acidosis , and the hyperkalemia .

The general anesthesia causes the greatest number of side effects and complications , It causes sore throat ( caused by the devices used to keep the airway open ) , It causes the drowsiness or feeling tired hours after the surgery , the dizziness , and the vision problems , And the damage to the teeth ( caused by airway devices) .

The general anesthesia also carries the risk for serious complications such as Stroke , The heart attack , The brain damage , The death , The patient’s risk depends on several factors including the age , the sex , the allergies , the overall the health , underlying medical conditions , and the current use of tobacco , alcohol , and the drugs .

The general anesthesia requires a special team of a doctor and technicians , It requires complex and costly machinery , It carries the major risk of the myocardial infarction or the stroke , And it causes the malignant hyperthermia  , certain inhaled anesthetics can trigger the disorder called malignant hyperthermia in the people who carry the gene for it .

The regional anesthesia has the higher risk of side effects and complications , It may cause the spinal fluid loss which occurs when the anesthetic is injected , The headache is often accompanied by the nausea , vomiting , dizziness , the light sensitivity , and the stiff neck , It causes Hypotension ( low blood pressure ) .

The regional anesthesia causes inability to the urinate ( usually temporary and relieved by catheterization ) , It causes the backache , It causes much less frequently , infection , the nerve damage or the permanent paralysis can occur , It causes temporary weakness or paralysis of the affected area , It causes the headache following the spinal and the epidural anesthesia .

The side effects of the anesthesia can occur during the surgery or procedure , or afterward , The side effects vary , depending on what kind of anesthesia you have the general , the regional or the local .

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