Skin Cancer signs , symptoms and causes

Skin cancer

The skin cancers are the abnormal growth of the skin cells which can invade or spread to the other parts of the body , They are the cancers which arise from the skin , most often develops on the skin exposed to the sun , this cancer can also occur on the areas of your skin not ordinarily exposed to the sunlight .

The skin cancer is common , usually low-grade cancerous (malignant) growth of the skin , It starts from the cells that begin as the normal skin cells and transform into those with the potential to reproduce in an out-of-control manner .

Unlike the other cancers , the vast majority of the skin cancers have no potential to spread to the other parts of the body (metastasize) and they become life-threatening .

We can reduce the skin cancer risk by avoiding exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation , Checking our skin for the suspicious changes can help detect the skin cancer at its earliest stages .

Skin cancer

Skin cancer

There are three main types of the skin cancer which are the basal-cell cancer (BCC) that is the most common , the squamous-cell cancer (SCC) which is the second most common , and the melanoma .

The first two together along with a number of less popular skin cancers are known as the non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) , The melanoma is also a form of skin cancer but it is far less popular , And it is more dangerous than the other two varieties .

The basal-cell and the squamous cell are common and the treatment is very effective , It is difficult to treat the malignant melanoma , And the early diagnosis and treatment can increase the survival rate from the melanoma .

The basal-cell cancer grows slowly and it can damage the tissue around it but it is improbable to extend to the distant areas or result in death , It appears as the painless raised area of the skin which may be shiny with the small blood vessel running over it or may present as the raised area with an ulcer .

The squamous-cell cancer is more likely to spread , It usually presents as a hard lump with a scaly top but may also form an ulcer , The melanomas are the most aggressive , The signs include the mole which has changed in the size , the shape , the color , It has irregular edges , It has more than one color , It is itchy or bleeds .

What are the signs and symptoms of skin cancer ?

You may not have any symptoms in the early stages of the melanoma , Or a melanoma may be sore , or it may itch or bleed , Most melanomas start as a new skin growth on the unmarked skin , The growth may change color , shape or size .

These changes are the early sign that the growth is the melanoma , But the melanoma can develop in an existing mole or the other mark on the skin , Or it may look like the bruise which isn’t healing or show up as the brown or black streak under the fingernail or toenail .

Most basal cell carcinomas have few signs or symptoms , The squamous cell carcinomas may be painful , Both forms of the skin cancer may appear as a sore that bleeds , oozes , crusts , or otherwise will not heal .

There is the slowly growing bump on the skin which may bleed after the minor trauma , Both kinds of the skin cancers may have raised edges and the central ulceration .

The signs and symptoms of basal cell carcinomas include the appearance of a shiny pink , red , pearly , or translucent bump , Pink skin growths or lesions with raised borders which are crusted in the center .

The raised reddish patch of the skin which may crust or itch but it is not painful , The white , yellow , or waxy area with the poorly defined border that may resemble a scar .

The signs and symptoms of the squamous cell carcinomas include Persistent , scaly red patches with irregular borders which may bleed easily , Open sore which does not go away for weeks , The raised growth with the rough surface which is indented in the middle , A wart-like growth .

The actinic keratoses (AK) also called the solar keratosis are scaly , crusty lesions caused by the damage from ultraviolet light , They often in the facial area , scalp , and hands .

In some cases these are considered the potential precancers , If untreated , up to 10% of Actinic keratosis growths can develop into the squamous cell carcinoma , and in rare cases some can turn into basal cell carcinomas .

The causes of skin cancer

The exact cause of the skin cancer is unknown , It appears that basal cell skin cancers arise from basaloid cells in the upper layer of the skin ,The uncontrolled growth of these cells is regulated by the other factors in the skin , When that regulation is lost ,The skin cancer cells begin to grow into the tumors .

In the squamous cell skin cancers , the tumors arise from the normal cell in the top layer of the skin , the epidermis , As with the basal cell cancers , They are prohibited from growing wildly by the genetically controlled factors .

On occurring the variation in the genes which regulate these cells , the control is lost and the skin cancers start to grow , And the genes are altered by the sunlight exposure .

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