Robotic sensing ( Robot Sensors ) uses , types , importance
Robotic sensing is the subarea of robotics science intended to give the robots sensing capabilities , so that the robots are more human-like , Robotic sensing mainly gives the robots the ability to see , touch , hear and move and it uses algorithms that require the environmental feedback .
Robotic sensors are used to estimate the robot’s condition and environment , These signals are passed to the controller to enable the appropriate behavior , The sensors in the robots are based on the functions of the human sensory organs , The robots require the extensive information about their environment in order to function effectively .
Robots need Robot Sensors to know the world around them , There are many Robot Sensors including ultrasonic , the temperature & the humidity , the force and a lot more to increase the robot awareness .
The sensor is the sophisticated device which measures the physical quantity such as the speed or the pressure and it converts it into the signal which can be measured electrically , The sensors are based on several working principals and types of measurements , almost all types of sensors emit the signals and measure the reflection to make measurements .
The sensors provide analogs to the human senses , They can monitor other phenomena for which the humans lack explicit sensors and they can measure the physical properties such as the distance between the objects .
The sensors can measure the presence of light and the frequency of sound , They can measure the object proximity , They can measure the presence or the absence of the object , bearing , the color and the distance between the objects .
The sensors can measure the physical orientation & the co-ordinates of the object in the space , they can measure the heat , The wavelength of infrared or ultra violet rays , the temperature , the magnitude and the direction .
The sensors can measure the presence and concentration of chemicals or reactants , They can measure the presence , color and intensity of light , They can measure the presence , frequency and intensity of sound .
The accuracy is very important in detecting and tracking the objects , Environmental condition affect on the sensors such as the temperature and the humidity , you can select the sensors that can be used to build the robot .
Robot sensors types
The internal sensors measure the robot’s internal state and they are used to measure its position , velocity and acceleration , The position sensors measure the position of the joint (the degree to which the joint is extended) , The velocity or speed sensor measures the consecutive position measurements at known intervals and it computes the time rate of change in the position values .
The presence of the object can be detected with the proximity sensors , There are many sensors such as the ultrasonic sensors , the capacitive , the photoelectric , the inductive or the magnetic , Tracking the objects can work using the proximity sensors (ultrasonic sensors) , for the advanced applications generally it is used the image sensors (webcams) and the vision software like OpenCV .
Many sensor technologies are used to build the proximity sensors , ultrasonic sensors , capacitive , photoelectric , inductive or magnetic , Motion detectors are based on infrared light , ultrasound or microwave/radar technology , Image sensors are digital cameras , camera modules and the other imaging devices based on CCD or CMOS technology .
Uses of sensors in Robotics
The sensors are one of the useful technologies that play the vital role in the robotics field , They are highly required in the robotics in Safety monitoring , Interlocking in work cell control , The quality control in work part inspection and data collection of the objects in the robot work cell .
The sensors are used in the industrial robotics for monitoring the dangerous and safety conditions in the robot cell layout , They help in avoiding the physical injuries and other damages caused to the human workers .
In the robot work cell , the series of activities of various equipments are controlled by using the interlocks , The sensors are used to verify the conclusion of the current work cycle before progressing to the next cycle .
The quality control was performed with the manual inspection system , Nowadays , The sensors are used in the inspection process to determine the quality features of the work part automatically , The sensors provide high accurate results but the sensors are only able to examine the limited variety of work part features and faults .
The sensors are used in data collection of objects in the robot work cell to determine the position or other related data about the fixtures , the work parts , the equipment , the human workers and so on , Apart from sensing the position , It is implemented to find out the other information like the work part’s color , the orientation , the size , the shape , etc .
The image quality is important in the applications which require excellent robotic vision , Algorithm based on the wavelet transform for fusing the images of different spectra and different foci improves the image quality , The robots can collect more accurate information from the resulting improved image .
The visual sensors help the robots to identify the surrounding and they take appropriate action , Touch sensory signal is useful to identify the external tactile signals for the accurate operations , Touch patterns enable the robots to interpret the human emotions in interactive applications .
The robots use touch signals to map the profile of the surface in hostile environment such as the water pipe , The predetermined path was programmed into the robot , with the integration of touch sensors , The robots first acquire the random data point .
The accurate audio sensor requires low internal noise contribution , audio sensors combine the acoustical arrays and the microphones to reduce the internal noise level .
The automated robots require the guidance system to determine the path to perform its task , the only way to achieve motion in such environment is to replace the sensors with the chemical reactions .