What is the structure of the typical flower ?

The flower

The flower is a short stem whose leaves are modified to form different parts of the flower , It is the organ of sexual reproduction in the flowering plants , It arises from a floral bud which emerges from the axle of a leaf called the bract , the axle may carry a number of flowers which known as the inflorescence .

The inflorescence is a group of flowers which arranged on the same axle , and the bract is the leaf from which the floral bud carrying the flower emerges .

The structure of a typical flowers

The structure of a typical flowers

The structure of a typical flowers

The typical flower is the flower that contains four whorls , It has a thin neck ( the pedicle ) ends in a swollen part ( the receptacle ) which carries the floral leaves in four different floral whorls .

The receptacle is the swollen part upon the flower pedicle on which the floral leaves are existed , four whorls are the calyx , the corolla , the androecium and the cynoecium .

The calyx is the first ( the outer ) whorl of the floral leaves that consists of a group of green leaves , each leaf is called a sepal and it protects the inner parts of the flower specially before blooming .

The corolla is the second whorl ( following the calyx ) of the floral leaves , it consists of a group of colourful and scented leaves , each leaf is called a petal .

The corolla protects the reproductive organs , And it attracts the insects to the flower which helps in the reproduction process .

The androecium is the third whorl ( following the corolla ) of the floral leaves , it is the male reproductive organ of the flower , and its leaves are known as the stamens .

Each stamen consists of a fine filament ends in a sac known as the anther which is divided into two parts , each part has two chambers containing the pollen grains , it produces and holds the pollen grains .

The gynoecium is the fourth ( innermost ) whorl of the floral leaves , it is the female reproductive organ of the flower , and its leaves are known as the carpels which resemble the flask in the shape .

Each carpel consists of a swollen part called the ovary which is connected with a tube called the style ( qalam ) which ends in an opening called the stigma ( the  maysem ) , and it produces the ovules ( inside the ovary ) .

The sepals of calyx and the petals of corolla might be of the same shape and color as in the onion flower , that is why we call the two whorls together the Perianth .

The hay-fever is a disease infecting people who have the allergy to the pollen grains , the symptoms of this disease are inflammation of the mucus membrane of the nose , running nose , continuous sneezing and tear flow .

Reproduction in flowering plants , Structure & functions of the flower

Pollination , Fertilization , Seed and Fruit formation in flowering plants

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