The atomic structure of the matter

The atom

The atom

The atom

The atom is the fundamental building unit of the matter , and it is the smallest individual unit of the matter which can share in the chemical reactions , Boyle , Thomas , Rutherford and Bohr are from the scientists who contributed the discovery of the atom construction .

The atomic radius of an atom is measured by unit called Angestrom , And one Angestrom equals a part of ten thousands million parts of one metre , The radius of hydrogen atom equals 0.3 Angestrom , and this indicates how much the atom is small .

The atomic construction

The atom

The atom

The atom consists of the nucleus and the electrons , and it is electrically neutral in its ordinary state , The nucleus is the central core of the atom , where the mass of the atom is concentrated in it .

The nucleus is positively charged as it contains the protons ( positively charged particles  ) and the neutrons ( electrically neutral particles ) , The atomic number and the mass number to express the atom of any element .

The atomic number is the number of the protons in the nucleus of an atom , and it is written below the symbol from the left , The mass number is the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom , and it is written above the symbol from the left side .

The electrons are negatively charged particles , they revolve around the nucleus with very high speed , The electrons has a negligible mass relative to that of the protons or the neutrons , so the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus .

The number of the negative electrons which revolve around the nucleus is equal to the number of the positive protons in the nucleus , so the atom is electrically neutral in its ordinary state .

Evolution concept of the atomic structure , Atomic theory & Properties of cathode rays

Atoms components , Rutherford and Bohr’s Atomic Models

Chemical combination , Types of bonds ( Chemical bonds & Physical bonds )

Theories explaining the covalent bond , Octet rule & Overlapped orbitals concept

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