The description of the modern periodic table

Modern periodic table

The modern periodic table consists of 7 horizontal periods and 16 vertical groups ( 18 vertical columns ) . The elements of the modern periodic table are classified into 4 blocks ( s , p , d and f ) .

The periods in the modern periodic table

The periods includes the elements of the different properties , And they have the same number of the energy levels .

By increasing the atomic number for the elements of the period , the atomic size decreases , the electronegativity increases and the metallic property decreases till  we reach the metalloid , then the nonmetallic property increases .

The groups in the modern periodic table

The groups includes the elements of the similar properties , and they have the same number of the electrons in the outermost energy level .

By increasing the atomic number for the elements in the groups , The atomic size increases , the electronegativity decreases , the metallic property increases in the groups which start with the metal , And the nonmetallic property decreases in the groups which start with the nonmetal .

The blocks in the modern periodic table

There are 4 blocks ( s , p , d and f ) . s-block elements are located on the left side of the periodic table and they are arranged in two groups ( 1 A ) and ( 2 A ) .

p-block elements are located on the right side of the periodic table , and they are arranged in six groups ( 3 A ) , ( 4 A ) , ( 5 A ) , ( 6 A ) , ( 7 A ) and zero group .

The modern periodic table

The blocks in the modern periodic table .

d-block elements are located in the middle of the periodic table , and they are arranged in eight groups ( 3 B ) , ( 4 B ) , ( 5 B ) , ( 6 B ) , ( 7 B ) , ( 8 ) , ( 1 B ) and ( 2 B ) .

d-block elements  are known as the transition  elements , They appear to start from period ( 4 ) , All the groups in d-block take letter ” B ” except group ( 8 ) which consists of three vertical columns .

f-block elements are located below the periodic table , They include lanthanides and actinides .

The elements of group ( A ) are located on the left and the right sides of the table . The elements of groups ( B ) are located in the middle of the table ,  And the new number of group ( 5 A ) is ( 15 ) , while that of zero group is ( 18 ) .

The graduation of the electronegativity of the elements in the periodic table

The atomic size of the elements in the periodic table

The lanthanides and actinides in the modern periodic table

Modern periodic table and classification of Elements

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