2G technology uses , features , advantages and disadvantages
2G technology means second-generation wireless telephone technology , It is based on the technology known as the global system for the mobile communication or in short we can say GSM , This technology enabled various networks to offer services such as the text messages , the picture messages & MMS (multimedia messages) .
GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to any mobile network at any time , SMS is a cheap & easy way to send a message to anyone , other than the voice call or conference , This technology is beneficial to both the network operators & ultimate users at the same time .
Second generation was launched in Finland in the year 1991 , All phone conversations are digitally encrypted , 2G networks are more efficient on the spectrum , They can allow far greater mobile phone penetration levels and 2G introduced data services for mobile , starting with SMS text messages .
2G technology is more efficient , 2G network holds sufficient security for both the sender & the receiver , All text messages are digitally encrypted , This digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive & read it , These digital signals consume less battery power , so , it helps in saving the battery of mobiles .
2G Technologies ( second generation technologies ) are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code division multiple access (CDMA) , TDMA allows for the division of signal into time slots , CDMA allocates each user the special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel .
Interim standard 95 is a first & the foremost CDMA cellular technology , It is most famous by its brand name known as cdmaOne , It makes use of the CDMA to transfer the voice signals & data signals from cellular phones to cell sites ( cell sites is cellular network ) .
The digital systems were designed to emit less radio power from the handsets , This meant that the cells had to be smaller , so more cells had to be placed in the same amount of space , This was possible because the cell towers & related equipment had become less expensive .
2G technology advantages
2G technology is useful to both the users & the network operators at the same time , Digital systems are embraced by the consumers for many reasons , The lower powered radio signals require less battery power , so , The phones last longer between the charges & the batteries can be smaller .
2G technology offers improved privacy that was not possible with the earlier technologies , 2G phones are more private than 1G phones which have no protection whatsoever against eavesdropping , The digital cellular calls are harder to eavesdrop on by use of the radio scanners , While the security algorithms used have proved not to be as secure as initially advertised .
The digital calls tend to be free of static & background noise , The digital signals require very little battery power , The mobile phone connections in different countries of the world are based on digital signals and 2g technology .
The mobile batteries can last longer as the digital signals consume less battery power , so , They help the mobile batteries to last long , The digital coding reduces the noise in the line , thus improving the voice clarity and the digital signals are considered environment friendly .
From the other advantages of 2g technologies is that the lower power emissions have helped in dealing with health concerns , Nobody wants any unforeseen health concerns arising due to the use of any technology .
2G technology introduces the digital data services such as SMS & email that has allowed the world to shrink & come closer , You can not have two or more cloned handsets having the same phone number , under 2G technologies , This has helped in reducing any chances of fraud to a minimum .
The digital data service is used to assist the mobile network operators to introduce short message service over the cellular phones , The digital encryption has provided privacy & safety to the data & the voice calls , SMS is a cheap & easy way to communicate with anyone .
2G technology disadvantages
You can see many advantages of 2g technology , But using the 2G technology requires powerful digital signals to help the mobile phones work , But the digital signals could be weak if there is no network coverage in any specific area .
The weaker digital signal transmitted by the cellular phone can not be sufficient to reach the cell tower in less populous areas , It causes a particular problem on 2G systems deployed on higher frequencies , but is mostly not a problem on 2G systems deployed on lower frequencies , The national regulations differ greatly among the countries which dictate where 2G can be deployed .
The digital signal has jagged decay curve , unlike the Analog that has a smooth decay curve , Under unfavorable conditions , The digital will have occasional dropouts and may fail completely if the conditions worsen , As distance increases , The analog reception degrades gradually , but digital reception abruptly transitions from clear reception to no reception .
The digital will start to completely fail , by dropping calls or being unintelligible , while analog slowly gets worse , generally holding a call longer and allowing at least some of the audio transmitted to be understood .
Although the digital calls are free of static & background noise , the use of lossy compression by the codecs takes a toll and the range of sound that they transmit is reduced , You may hear less of the tonality of someone’s voice talking on the digital cellphone .
The pulse nature of TDMA transmission used interferes with some electronics , such as certain audio amplifiers , Because the intellectual property is concerted among a few industry members , It can create the obstacles for new entrants and it limits the competition among the phone manufacturers .
2G is less compatible with the smartphones functions , Data transmission speed can be more than 4 million bits per sec in 3G technology but it is less than 50,000 bits per sec in 2G network , GSM offers a fixed maximum cell site range of 35 km which is imposed by the technical limitations .
One could have a backup handset in case of damage or loss , a permanently installed handset in a car or remote workshop and so on , With digital systems , this is no longer possible , unless the two handsets are never turned on simultaneously .
The downloading & uploading speeds available in 2G technologies are up to 236 Kbps , While in 3G technology the downloading and uploading speeds are up to 21 Mbps and 5.7 Mbps respectively .