The asexual reproduction by tubers in plants

Reproduction by tubers

The tuber is a horizontal root or a terrestrial stem or which contains growing buds and it is used for the vegetative reproduction , It is a root as the sweet potatoes , and it is a stem as the potatoes .

The tubers are various types of modified plant structures that are enlarged to store the  nutrients , They are used to provide the energy and the nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season , And they are used by the plants to survive in the winter or dry months .

The tubers are enlarged , fleshy underground stems such as the potatoes , The stem tuber forms from thickened rhizomes or stolons , Some buds in the tuber grow forming the shoot system  that grow into the typical stems and leaves above the soil .

Potato plant

Potato plant

The other buds in the tubers grow forming the root system that buried inside the soil , The offspring or the new tubers are attached to the parent tuber , and in the autumn the plant dies except for the new offspring stem tubers which have one dominant bud .

In the spring , The tuber regrows a new shoot producing the stems and the leaves , in summer the tubers decay and the new tubers begin to grow .

Most gardeners plant seed potatoes  which are the pieces of potato that have at least two or three buds ,  As the plant grows , It uses the food reserves in the seed , The potatoes are stem tubers that enlarged stolons thicken to develop into the storage organs .

The stem tubers are swollen underground stems , with reduced scale leaves and axillary buds , They are distinct from the rhizomes because their terminal shoot apex stops growing and development is entirely radial and lateral .

The potato is a starch-accumulating tuberous plant , And the tubers  do not contain chlorophyll unless exposed to the light , The tuberous stems are swollen sections of stem , They don’t occur at the tips of underground stems , and they occur on the main stem  . 

The tuberous stems have a vertical orientation with the vegetative buds which produced on the upper end  ,  The tuberous stems are perennial , and continue to enlarge every year .

The production of the tubers is one way that a plant can store the carbohydrates during the the growing season , Then at the end of the growing season , The above ground portion of the plant dies back ,The new tubers overwinter , and sprout again in the spring .

The root tubers  resemble the stem tubers such as the sweat potatoes  , They are fleshy swollen roots and store reserves such as the starch , The tuberous roots are enlarged secondary roots as they are the root tissue , There are no nodes or buds , And two familiar examples of plants with tuberous roots are the sweet potato and dahlia .

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