The function and structure of the root system in the plant
The plant consists of the root system and the shoot system, The root system consists of the roots, The shoot system consists of the leaves and the stems, The plant takes the raw materials from the environment to make its food by the photosynthesis process.
The plant takes carbon dioxide gas from the air, the light energy, the water from the soil, and the minerals salts from the soil (such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, nitrogen and zinc).
The water and mineral salts are transmitted from the soil to the other parts of the plant through the root hairs in the root system, then the transmission of the juice (the water and the mineral salts) from the root to the other parts of the plant to use it in making the food.
The structure of the root system
The root is subdivided and extended through the soil particles, it is composed of a number of the layers which are the epidermis layer, the cortex layer, the xylem (wood) layer and the pith layer.
The epidermis layer is the external later that has the root hairs extended from its cells, The cortex layer follows the epidermis layer and its last row is called the endodermis.
The xylem (wood) layer follows the cortex layer, and the pith layer is the last layer that follows the xylem layer.
The functions of the root system
The root system is very important for the plant as it is branched and extended through the soil particles to fix the plant in the soil.
The root system covers a large area of the soil to search for the water and the mineral salts that the plant needs, then absorbs them from the soil by the root hairs, and raises them to the other parts of the plant (the shoot system) to form the plant’s food.
The root system absorbs the water and the minerals from the environment, It anchors the plant in the ground, and it stores the food that has been made in the leaves by the photosynthesis process, So, the food can be used later by the plant to grow and survive.