The lanthanides and actinides in the modern periodic table
Lanthanides and actinides
Lanthanides and actinides are located below the modern periodic table, They consist of two rows, They are known as the f-block elements because they have valence electrons in the f-shell, Lanthanides elements can be found naturally on Earth, and only one element of them is radioactive.
The lanthanides are 14 elements with atomic number 58 (Cerium, Ce) to 71 (Lutetium, Lu), the actinides are 14 elements with atomic numbers from 90 (Thorium, Th) to 103 (Lawrencium, Lr).
The lanthanides and the actinides belong to the periods 6 and 7, respectively and between groups 3 and 4, and they are set off below the main portion of the table, All of the actinides are radioactive and some of them are not found in nature.
The lanthanides are an important group of elements, Most of the lanthanides are formed when uranium and plutonium undergo nuclear reactions, The lanthanides are the elements produced as the 4f sublevel is filled with electrons and the actinides are formed while filling the 5f sublevel.
The actinides are the elements which found in the second period of the f-block, and these elements fill up the 5 f sublevel, The lanthanides are the rare earth elements found in the first period of the f– block, and these elements fill up the 4 f sublevel.
Uses of lanthanides and actinides
The oxides of the lanthanides and actinides are used in the glass industry for polishing and making colored glass for goggles and television screens.
Due to the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic nature of the lanthanides and actinides, they are used in the magnetic and electronic devices.
The mixed oxides of the lanthanides are used in petroleum cracking, and ceric sulphate is a well known as an oxidizing agent which is used in the volumetric analysis.
Lanthanides and actinides do not find any use in their pure state, So they are used in the production of the alloys of steel to improve the strength and workability of the steel.