The chemical properties of the non-metals


The non-metals are the elements which have more than four electrons in their outermost energy levels , The non-metals are characterized by the smallest atomic sizes and the largest electronegativity .

Sulfur ( S )  is nonmetal , It was known as brimstone , Phosphorus ( P ) is a reactive nonmetal ,  Graphite is not the only pure from carbon ( C )  , Diamond is also carbon , The colour comes from the impurities caught within the crystal structure .

During the chemical reactions , The atom of the nonmetallic elements tend to gain electrons , and change into the negative ions . The negative ions carry a number of negative charges equal to the number of the gained electrons .

The electronic structure of the negative ions is similar to that of the nearest inert gas that follows the non-metals in the periodic table , The negative ion is an atom of the nonmetallic element gaining an electron or more during the chemical reaction .

During the chemical reactions , the atoms of the elements tend to complete their outermost energy levels with electrons ( 8 electrons ) to reach the stable state , this is done through losing of the electrons as in the case of the metal atoms , and gaining of the electrons as in the case of the non-metals as in the non-metals atoms .


The non-metals on the modern periodic table .

The non-metals ( such as carbon and sulphur ) don not react with dilute acids ( such as HCl ) , The non-metals such as carbon ( C ) react with oxygen giving non-metals oxides which are known as ” Acidic oxides ” . Non-metal acidic oxides dissolve in the water forming acids which turn litmus solution into red .

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