The states of matter ( solid , liquid , gas , plasma )
The states of matter
All matters have a mass , and take up space , the state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on , and there are four states of matter observable in our life which are solid , liquid , gas and plasma .
The solid state
The solid is the state in which matter maintains a definite ( fixed ) volume and shape , the motion of its particles is limited motion ( oscillatory motion ) , they are packed closely together .
The intermolecular forces between the solid particles are very strong that the particles can not move freely , they can only vibrate , Some examples of solid state such as iron , aluminum and copper .
The solid has very small intermolecular spaces , it can transform into a liquid through melting process , the liquid can change into a solid by freezing process , and the solid can change into gas by sublimation process .
The liquid state
The liquid is the state in which matter adapts to the shape of its container but varies only slightly in volume , the liquid state has definite volume and indefinite shape if the temperature and pressure are constant .
Motion of the liquid particles is more free , the intermolecular spaces between its particles are relatively large , and the intermolecular forces are relatively weak , Examples of liquid state such as the water , alcohol , the oil , the milk and the juice .
The gaseous state
The gas is the state in which matter expands to occupy the volume and shape of its container and it has indefinite shape and indefinite volume , The motion of gas molecules is completely free ( unlimited ) , the intermolecular spaces are very large and the intermolecular forces are very weak or almost not existed .
The plasma state
The plasma does not have definite shape or volume , it is electrically conductive , it produces magnetic fields and electric currents , and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces .
Lighting , electric sparks , the fluorescent lights , neon lights , plasma televisions , some types of flame and the stares are examples of illuminated matter in the plasma state .
The gas is usually changed to the plasma in one of two ways , when there is a huge voltage difference between two points , or by exposing it to extremely high temperatures .