Embryo Screening (PGD) for Genetic Diseases advantages & disadvantages
The preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is the way of screening the embryo produced by IVF , It occurs before the implantation to search for the genetic mutations which could develop into the chronic disease , The aim is to select the embryo which is free of the disease it is being screened for .
Embryo Screening for Genetic Diseases
Embryo screening ( PGD ) is a form of genetic screening that is available for the parents who conceive children by In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and who have the family history of a particular genetic disorder .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) involves taking the cell from the three day old embryo when it is at the eight cell stage , These cells are identical at this time because they have not differentiated , and the embryo is not destroyed during this process .
The extracted cell undergoes a serious of the genetic tests to determine whether it has any chromosomal or genetic abnormalities , The procedure known as FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation ) is employed to search for the chromosome disorders and PCR (the polymerase chain reaction) can detect the mutations at the gene level .
This kind of the embryo screening for the genetic diseases can be used to look for any condition which is caused by the mutation in the single gene , The embryo screening can look for many diseases like Sickle cell anaemia , Cystic fibrosis and sex-linked genetic disorders like Fragile X syndrome .
The couples are able to see if the embryo would be likely to inherit the genetic mutation , So , they can select not to go ahead with the implantation , The embryo screening avoids them the dilemma of the abortion at the later stage .
Embryo Screening (PGD) advantages
Embryo screening (PGD) can allow you to decide how you want the baby to look like and what the traits you want it to have , It can be used to select which embryos do not have the disease or the sickness in them .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) gives the parents the option of living with the severely disabled child , It can prepare them for the life with the disabled child , It is used to avoid the serious diseases , And the parents can be reassured that the test is not harming their babies .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) Pre-warns of any defects , It can give the parents the choice to abort if they can not cope , And it gives insight into the health and the development of the embryo .
The parents underwent the fertility treatment , They carry out the tests on the embryos to screen for the genetic disorders , The babies born after IVF pregnancies where the preimplantation genetic diagnosis was used , they were no more likely to suffer the birth defects than the babies born after the natural pregnancies .
The preimplantation genetic diagnosis was undertaken on an embryo to look for a mutated form of BRCA1 , a gene which can cause the cancer , There are some who view the technology as a slippery slope towards designer babies , And the parents could select the traits they want for their children .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) can be used to determine the sex of a child but it can be used to prevent selecting the embryo with a sex-linked genetic mutation , Many traits are the result of many genes and multigene/environment interactions .
There are those who believe that Embryo screening ( PGD ) devalues the lives of disabled people , The embryo selection is the drive to create the population of perfect people , Women who have the treatment tend to be older than the norm , and maternal age is recognized as being the main risk factor for birth defects .
The termination of pregnancies will decrease number of people with the disease , Embryo screening ( PGD ) reduce the health-care costs , And it allows the people to make the choices about the termination .
Embryo Screening (PGD) disadvantages
If the woman has a disable or messed up embryo , the doctor takes that embryo , freezes it , and then throws it away , Only the wealthy people can do Embryo screening ( PGD ) because the procedure is really expensive .
If the doctor screws up while doing the procedure , The embryo may break or infected if it is treated incorrectly , And you are changing who your baby is by getting this procedure , It can be used to pressure on the parents to abort , There is a possible damage or risk to the embryo , There is possible harm and risk to the mother .
If you got Embryo screening , then you are saying that you you did not agree with God’s opinion and decision on how you wanted your baby to be , Also , If you want to have this procedure and you choose that you want a girl .
If that happened , there would be anymore babies and it would be rare to find a male anywhere in the world , Knowing what the sex of baby can be used to get what you want eg boy/ girl that could change the balance of the sexes in later years .
If people go with the procedure , the doctor may accidentally or purposely make a negative enhancement to your baby such as the cancer , the blindness , or the deafness , The use of the procedure is restricted because of fears removing a cell from an embryo could affect its later development .
The detected defects do not indicate the embryos will lead the normal/ productive life if born , Some genetic mutations which appear strange could be the evolutional changes to our race , So , The aborting could hold back the progression .