Embryo Screening (PGD) for Genetic Diseases advantages and disadvantages
The preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is the way of screening the embryo produced by IVF , It occurs before the implantation to search for the genetic mutations which could develop into the chronic disease , The aim is to select the embryo which is free of the disease it is being screened for .
Embryo Screening for Genetic Diseases
Embryo screening ( PGD ) is a form of genetic screening that is available for the parents who conceive children by In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and who have the family history of a particular genetic disorder.
Embryo screening ( PGD ) involves taking the cell from the three day old embryo when it is at the eight cell stage , These cells are identical at this time because they have not differentiated , and the embryo is not destroyed during this process .
The extracted cell undergoes a serious of the genetic tests to determine whether it has any chromosomal or genetic abnormalities , The procedure known as FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation) is employed to search for the chromosome disorders and PCR (the polymerase chain reaction) can detect the mutations at the gene level .
This kind of the embryo screening for the genetic diseases can be used to look for any condition which is caused by the mutation in the single gene , The embryo screening can look for many diseases like Sickle cell anaemia , Cystic fibrosis and sex-linked genetic disorders like Fragile X syndrome .
The couples are able to see if the embryo would be likely to inherit the genetic mutation , So , they can select not to go ahead with the implantation , The embryo screening avoids them the dilemma of the abortion at the later stage .
Embryo Screening (PGD) advantages
Embryo screening (PGD) can allow you to decide how you want the baby to look like and what the traits you want it to have , It can be used to select which embryos do not have the disease or the sickness in them .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) gives the parents the option of living with the severely disabled child , It can prepare them for the life with the disabled child , It is used to avoid the serious diseases , And the parents can be reassured that the test is not harming their babies .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) Pre-warns of any defects , It can give the parents the choice to abort if they can not cope , And it gives insight into the health and the development of the embryo .
The parents underwent the fertility treatment , They carry out the tests on the embryos to screen for the genetic disorders , The babies born after IVF pregnancies where the preimplantation genetic diagnosis was used , they were no more likely to suffer the birth defects than the babies born after the natural pregnancies .
The preimplantation genetic diagnosis was undertaken on an embryo to look for a mutated form of BRCA1 , a gene which can cause the cancer , There are some who view the technology as a slippery slope towards designer babies , And the parents could select the traits they want for their children .
Embryo screening ( PGD ) can be used to determine the sex of a child but it can be used to prevent selecting the embryo with a sex-linked genetic mutation , Many traits are the result of many genes and multigene/environment interactions .
There are those who believe that Embryo screening ( PGD ) devalues the lives of disabled people , The embryo selection is the drive to create the population of perfect people , Women who have the treatment tend to be older than the norm , and maternal age is recognized as being the main risk factor for birth defects .
The termination of pregnancies will decrease number of people with the disease , Embryo screening ( PGD ) reduce the health-care costs , And it allows the people to make the choices about the termination .
Embryo Screening (PGD) disadvantages
If the woman has a disable or messed up embryo , the doctor takes that embryo , freezes it , and then throws it away , Only the wealthy people can do Embryo screening ( PGD ) because the procedure is really expensive .
If the doctor screws up while doing the procedure , The embryo may break or infected if it is treated incorrectly , And you are changing who your baby is by getting this procedure , It can be used to pressure on the parents to abort , There is a possible damage or risk to the embryo , There is possible harm and risk to the mother .
If you got Embryo screening , then you are saying that you you did not agree with God’s opinion and decision on how you wanted your baby to be , Also , If you want to have this procedure and you choose that you want a girl .
If that happened , there would be anymore babies and it would be rare to find a male anywhere in the world , Knowing what the sex of baby can be used to get what you want eg boy/ girl that could change the balance of the sexes in later years .
If people go with the procedure , the doctor may accidentally or purposely make a negative enhancement to your baby such as the cancer , the blindness, or the deafness , The use of the procedure is restricted because of fears removing a cell from an embryo could affect its later development.
The detected defects do not indicate the embryos will lead the normal/ productive life if born , Some genetic mutations which appear strange could be the evolutional changes to our race , So , The aborting could hold back the progression .