Eye Cancers types and Treatments
Cancers in the eye ( intraocular cancers )
There are two types of cancers that can be found in the eye , The primary intraocular cancers start inside the eyeball , In adults , the melanoma is the most popular primary intraocular cancer , followed by primary intraocular lymphoma .
In the children , The retinoblastoma ( the cancer which starts in cells in the retina ) is the most popular primary intraocular cancer , and the medulloepithelioma is the next most common ( but it is still extremely rare ) .
The secondary intraocular cancers start somewhere else in the body and then they spread to the eye , they are more popular than the primary intraocular cancers , The most popular cancers which spread to the eye are the breast and the lung cancers , These cancers spread to the part of the eyeball called the uvea .
Intraocular melanoma (melanoma of the eye)
The intraocular melanoma is the most popular type of cancer which develops within the eyeball in adults but it is still fairly rare , The melanomas of the skin are much more popular than the intraocular melanomas .
The intraocular melanomas are made up of two kinds of cells which are the spindle cells which are long , thin cells , The epithelioid cells which are almost round but with some straight edges .
The melanomas develop from the pigment-making cells called the melanocytes , When the melanoma develops in the eye , It is usually in the uvea that is why these cancers are also called the uveal melanomas .
About 9 out of 10 Intraocular melanomas develop in the choroid or the ciliary body ( which are parts of the uvea ) , The choroid cells make the same kind of pigment as the melanocytes in the skin .
The other intraocular melanomas start in the iris ( It is part of the uvea) , These are the easiest for the persons ( or their doctor ) to see because they start in the dark spot on the iris which has been found for many years and then begins to grow .
These melanomas are fairly slow growing , and they rarely spread to the other parts of the body , So , the people with iris melanomas generally have a good prognosis .
The eye cancer is rare , There are a number of different cancers which can affect the eye , The eye (ocular) melanoma is the most common , The eye melanoma doesn’t cause any symptoms and they may be found by the optician during the routine eye test .
The Signs and symptoms can include blurred vision , seeing the flashing lights and the shadows , the brown or dark patches on the white area of the eye , These symptoms can be caused by the other eye conditions but it is a good idea to get them checked .
Primary intraocular lymphoma (lymphoma of the eye)
The lymphoma is the type of cancer which starts in the immune system cells called the lymphocytes , and the lymphomas start in the lymph nodes that are the bean-sized collections of the immune system cells scattered throughout the body .
The lymphomas can also start in the internal organs such as the stomach , the lungs , and rarely , in the eyes , There are 2 main types of lymphoma which are Hodgkin disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma , The primary intraocular lymphoma is the type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma .
Most people with the primary intraocular lymphoma are elderly or have the immune system problems such as AIDS , The primary intraocular lymphoma is often seen along with the lymphoma of the brain , known as the primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma .
Orbital and adnexal cancers
The orbital and adnexal cancers develop from the tissues such as the muscle , the nerve , and the skin around the eyeball and they are like their counterparts in other parts of the body , The cancers of the eyelid are usually the skin cancers ( Melanoma Skin Cancer and Skin Cancer: Basal and Squamous Cell ) .
Treatments for eye melanoma
The main treatments for the eye melanoma are the brachytherapy , tiny plates lined with the radioactive material called the plaques are inserted near the tumor and they are left in place for up to a week to kill the cancerous cells .
The external radiotherapy , a machine is used to carefully aim the beams of radiation at the tumor to kill the cancerous cells , The surgery is used to remove the tumor or part of the eye , It may be possible if the tumor is small and you still have some vision in your eye .
The removal of the eye (enucleation) , It may be necessary if the tumor is large or you have lost your vision , the eye will be replaced with the artificial eye that matches your other eye , The chemotherapy is rarely used for the eye melanoma , but it may be suitable for the other types of eye cancer .