Human genome project , And Treatment with genes ( Genes therapy )
What is the human genome project (HGP) ?
It is the detailed map included all the human chromosomes , This project started in October 1990 , All our genes together are known as our genome , It aims to discovery of all the human inheriting factors ( the genes ) , And it identifies the various hereditary functions to the human .
The human genome determines the complete sequence of all the 3 billion pairs of nitrogenous bases to obtain a detailed map of this sequence which help the scientists to understand the human biology and identify the single difference in the genome between one person and another .
The human genome identifies the genes responsible for the various diseases like the cancer , the diabetes , the vascular diseases , the mental diseases , And it identifies the different mutations on the function of the genes .
The human genome aims to complete the mapping and to understand all the genes of the human beings , And the human genome was the natural culmination of the history of the genetics research .
The results of the project
The scientists discovered that the DNA is similar in the humans by a ratio of more than 99 % but the single difference by a ratio of less than 1 % could affect to a great extent the acceptance of the individual to the harmful environmental effects like the bacteria , the viruses , the poisons , the chemicals , the medicines and various treatment .
Treatment with genes ( Genes therapy )
Genes therapy means the replacement of the damaged gene that is responsible for the disease with a healthy one to treat this disease , or introducing healthy genes carrying desirable hereditary information inside the cell , and the gene in this case is considered as a medicine .
You should know that the treatment by the genes presents the opportunity for the human body itself to provide the capability to create some of the materials ( the medicine ) and in the appropriate time with the possibility of continuing the treatment all its life .
The gene therapy is the way to fix the genetic problem at its source , many polymers are either expressed as the proteins , the interfere with the protein expression , or possibly correct the genetic mutations .
The most common form uses DNA that encodes the functional , the therapeutic gene to replace the mutated gene , The polymer molecule is packaged within the vector that carries the molecule inside the cells .
The gene therapy is the experimental technique that uses the genes to treat or prevent the disease , In the future , this technique may allow the doctors to treat a disorder by inserting the gene into the patient’s cells instead of using the drugs or the surgery .
There are many researchers that are testing several approaches to the gene therapy , including , Replacing the mutated gene that causes the disease with the healthy copy of the gene , Inactivating or knocking out the mutated gene that is functioning improperly , And the new gene is introduced into the body to help fight the disease .
Although the gene therapy is the promising treatment option for a number of diseases ( including the inherited disorders , some cancer types , and the certain viral infections ) , It remains risky and it is still under study to make sure that it will be effective and safe .
The gene therapy is being tested for the treatment of the diseases that have no other cures only , It is the therapeutic delivery of the nucleic acid polymers into the patient’s cells as the drug to treat the disease .