The types and methods of pollination in the plants
The plant reproduction is the process by which plants generate new individuals, there are two kinds of reproduction in the plants which are the sexual reproduction & the asexual reproduction, The flowers are classified according to the sex into three types which are the male flower, the female flower, and the bisexual (hermaphrodite) flowers.
Reproduction in plants
The male flowers contain only male reproductive organs (the androecium) and they are unisexual such as the palms, the maize & the pumpkins, The female flowers contain only female reproductive organs (the gynoecium) and they are unisexual such as the palms, the maize and the pumpkins, The bisexual (hermaphrodite) flowers contain both the male & female reproductive organs such as the tulip, the petunia, and the wallflower.
Sexual reproduction in plants happens via the flowers, it takes place in two successive processes which are the pollination and the fertilization, it is the formation of offspring by the fusion of gametes while asexual reproduction is the formation of offspring without the fusion of gametes.
The pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the flower anthers to the stigmas, the pollen grains are small cells that formed in the anther inside the pollen chamber, When those grains become mature, the anther splits longitudinally and the pollen grains spread in the air like the dust.
Types of pollination
There are two types of pollination which are self (auto) pollination and mixed (cross) pollination, Self (auto) pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas of the same flower or to another flower in the same plant, Mixed (cross) pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers of a flower to the stigmas of another flower in other plants of the same kind.
If the flowers are on two different individual plants, the flowers have been cross-pollinated, and if the flowers are on the same individual or if the anther and the stigma are in the same flower, the flowers have been self-pollinated.
The flowers that are self-pollinated and they can produce the viable seeds are self-compatible, and the flowers which are self-pollinated but the pollen grains do not function properly on the carpels of the same plant are termed self-incompatible.
Methods of mixed (cross) pollination
The pollen grains are transferred from one flower to another in different ways which are the pollination by wind, the pollination by insects and the artificial pollination.
Pollination by air
The flowers which are pollinated by the air are characterized by their anthers are hanged to be easily opened by the air, and their stigmas are feathery like and sticky to catch the pollen grains from the air.
The flowers produce huge numbers of pollen grains to compensate what is lost in the air, and their pollen grains are light in weight and dry to be easily carried by air.
Pollination by insects
The flowers pollinated by the insects are characterized by their petals are colored and scented to attract the insects to feed on its nectar, and their pollen grains are sticky or having coarse surfaces to stick on the insect body.
The artificial pollination is carried out by man, man has to pollinate the palm trees to ensure the pollination process as the pollination is difficult to occur by the air or by insects, where the gardener spread the palm tree’s pollen grains over their female flowers.