The oxidation and the reduction reactions

The oxidation and the reduction processes take place by two ways, Losing and gaining oxygen or hydrogen, Losing and gaining the electrons, The two processes of oxidation and reduction are concurrent processes as they occur at the same time.

Oxidation & reduction by losing and gaining oxygen or hydrogen

H2 + CuO right facing arrow with heat Cu + H2O

What happens during the reaction of hydrogen gas passes and hot copper oxide?

Hydrogen is oxidized because it combines with oxygen, Hydrogen is considered as a reducing agent because it took oxygen from copper oxide, Copper oxide is reduced because it loses oxygen, Copper oxide is considered as an oxidizing agent because it gives oxygen to hydrogen.

The oxidation is the chemical process that causes the increase in the oxygen percentage or the decrease in the hydrogen percentage in the substance, The reduction is the chemical process that causes the decrease in the oxygen percentage or the increase in the hydrogen percentage in the substance.

The oxidation agent is the substance which gives oxygen or takes hydrogen away during a chemical reaction, The reducing agent is the substance which takes oxygen away or gives hydrogen during a chemical reaction.

The oxidation and the reduction by losing and gaining the electrons
Oxidation and reduction

Oxidation and reduction

The reaction of sodium with chlorine to produce sodium chloride (the table salt) shows the oxidation and the reduction reaction (It does not include oxygen or hydrogen), Sodium metal and chlorine gas react sharply to form sodium chloride, The oxidation and the reduction happen together in this reaction.

 2 Na + Cl2 2 NaCl

Sodium atom is monovalent because it loses one electron and changes into the positive (+ ve) ion, This process is known as the oxidation process, Sodium atom is oxidized because it loses an electron and changes into (+ ve) ion, Sodium atom is considered as a reducing agent because it loses (gives) an electron.

NaNa + + e −    

2 Na 2 Na + + 2 e

Chlorine atom is monovalent because it gains an electron (which is lost from sodium atom) and changes into a negative (- ve) ion, This process is known as the reduction process, Chlorine atom is reduced because it gains an electron and changes into (-ve) ion, Chlorine atom is considered as an oxidizing agent because it gains an electron.

Cl 2 + e Cl

Cl 2 + 2 e 2 Cl

The ions cannot remain free, therefore the negative (Cl ) ion combines with the positive (Na +) ion to form a sodium chloride molecule (NaCl).

The oxidation is a chemical process where the atom loses an electron or more, The reduction is a chemical process where the atom gains an electron or more during a chemical reaction.

The oxidizing agent (factor) is the substance which gains an electron or more during a chemical reaction, The reduction agent (factor) is the substance which loses an electron or more during a chemical reaction.

Factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions (Pressure, temperature, Catalysts, Light, Nature & Concentration of the reactants)

The movement of electrons around the nucleus and the energy levels

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