The properties of the metals during the chemical reactions
The metals are the elements which have less than four electrons in their outermost energy levels, During the chemical reactions, the atoms of the metallic elements tend to lose their outermost electrons, and change into the positive ions.
The positive ions carry a number of the positive charges equal to the number of the lost electrons, The electronic structure of the positive ion is similar to that of the nearest preceding inert gas in the modern periodic table.
Some metals such as Magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) react with oxygen giving the metals oxides which are called “Basic oxides”, The Basic oxides are the metallic oxides, some of them dissolve in the water forming alkaline solutions.
Some metal oxides (such as magnesium oxides) dissolve in the water giving alkalis (metal hydroxide) which turns litmus solution into blue, Some metals oxides such as iron II oxide do not dissolve in the water. All alkalis are bases, while not all the bases are alkalis.
The reaction of the metals with the water depends on the position of the metal in the chemical activity series, The chemical activity series is a series in which metals are arranged in descending order according to their chemical activity.
Potassium and Sodium react instantly with water and hydrogen gas evolves which burns with a pop sound. Calcium and Magnesium react very slowly with cold water. Zinc and Iron react with hot water vapour at high temperature only. Copper and Silver do not react with water.
Some active metals such as magnesium (Mg) and zinc (Zn) react with dilute acids (as hydrochloric acid) giving salt of acid and hydrogen gas is evolved. The inactive metals such as copper (Cu) do not react with dilute acids and no gas evolves.