Formation of the solution & factors affecting the solubility process
Your blood is a mixture of elements and components because it contains white blood cells , red blood cells , water and number of dissolved substances , The different components of blood can be separated and used by doctors , The ratio of these substances in your blood changes daily , but the identity of the mixture does not change .
The particles of salt are not seen suspended throughout the water after stirring , The particles of mud are seen suspended throughout the water after stirring , Homogeneous mixture is the mixture in which its components can be distinguished from each other , such as a salty solution , apple juice and tea .
Heterogeneous mixture is the mixture in which its components can be distinguished from each other , such as mud in water , chalk in water , natural orange juice , Salty solution is a homogeneous mixture because its components can be distinguished from each other , Apple juice is a solution because it is a homogeneous liquid mixture .
Formation of the solution
The solution consists of solvent and solute , Solvent is the substance in which solute disperses or dissolves such as water , alcohol , benzene , …etc. , Solute is the substance which dissolves in a solvent such as salt , sugar , ….etc. , The solubility ( dissolving ) of a solute in a solvent produces solution , Water is called a common solvent as thousands of substances dissolve in it .
The salty solution consists of a solute which is salt and a solvent which is water , Stirring process is necessary to dissolve the solute in the solvent .
Solubility process is the process by which a solute dissolves in a solvent leading to the disappearance of the solute , Solubility process can be expressed as follows :
Solute + Solvent → Solution
In a sugary solution , sugar is considered the solute , because it dissolves in the solvent ( water ) to form the sugary solution , Substances can be classified according to their solubility into a soluble substance and an insoluble substance .
Soluble substance is the substance that dissolves ( disappears ) in a solvent , The formed homogeneous mixture is called solution , such as salt in salty solution , An insoluble substance is the substance that does not dissolve ( suspends ) in a solvent , The formed heterogeneous mixture is called suspension , such as mud in water .
Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which some particles of the solute are suspended throughout the solvent , such as mud in water and natural orange juice , Suspension can be separated by filtration process .
Tea and sugary solution are homogeneous liquid mixtures ( solutions ) because the components of each of them can not distinguished from each other , Mud in water is a heterogeneous mixture ( suspension ) because the particles of mud can be distinguished from water .
Factors affecting the solubility process
The solubility process is affected by four factors which are :
- Quantity of solvent and solute
- The kind of the solute
Solubility process depends on the amount of solvent and solute , where by increasing the quantity of solvent , the speed of solubility increases and vice versa , By decreasing the quantity of solute , the speed of solubility increases and vice versa , Solubility depends on the amount of solvent and solute .
By increasing temperature and using the same amount of solvent and solute , the dissolving ( solubility ) time decreases , Dissolving sugar in hot water is faster than in cold water , because when the temperature increases the speed of the solubility increases , Stirring increases the speed of the solubility process and the solubility process depends on the kind of the solute .
Surface area of the solid material affects the solubility process , If you have 2 gm. of sugar cubes and 2 gm. of powdered sugar , The 2 gm. of powdered sugar dissolves faster in 100 ml , because cracking ( grinding solid materials ) gives a larger surface area exposed to the solvent that makes the solubility process gets faster .
Shaking has the same effect of stirring process , The necessary factors to decrease the solubility time ( increase the solubility speed ) are :
- Heating .
- Stirring .
- Increasing the amount of solvent .
- Decreasing the amount of the solute .
- Grinding the solid materials .