States of water, physical and chemical properties of the water

Physical properties of the water 

The water has a higher melting point, boiling point, and heat of vaporization than most common liquid. This fact indicates that there are strong forces of attraction between the adjacent water molecules

Water exists in three states
The water's states
The states of the water

The states of the water are the solid-state (ice), the liquid state (the water), and the gaseous state (the water vapour) at the normal temperature.

The water is a good polar solvent 

You notice that the water is a good polar solvent. So, It has a great ability to dissolve the most ionic compounds such as the table salt  (sodium chloride).

The water can also dissolve some covalent compounds such as the sugar that can form the hydrogen bonds with it. Some covalent compounds such as oil can not dissolve in the water as they can not form the hydrogen bonds with the water.

The water
The water is a good polar solvent

The Pure water boils at 100 degrees Celsius and freezes at 0 degrees Celsius, The high boiling point and the low freezing point of the water are due to the presence of the hydrogen bonds between its molecules.

The water density decreases on freezing 

The density of the water in the solid-state (the ice) is lower than its density in the liquid state as when the temperature of the water decreases by 4 degrees Celsius.

The water molecules are collected together by the hydrogen bonds to form the ice crystals which have a hexagonal shape, large volume, and a large number of spaces between them.

The ice crystals float on the water surface and this helps in the preservation of the life of the aquatic creatures in it.

The water has a high latent heat 

The water has high latent heat. So, it resists the change from one state to another. So, the water is used to extinguish the fires, as it consumes a large amount of the heat of the combustion media during its vaporization process.

The water has a high specific heat 

You notice that the temperature of the human body does not change by changing the atmospheric temperature. The high specific heat of the water makes it absorb or lose a large amount of the heat without changing its temperature.

The chemical properties of the water  
The weakness of the water ionization
The water ionization
The water ionizes to give positive hydrogen ions and negative hydroxide ions

The ionization is the process of converting the molecules of some covalent compounds into ions, and the pure water is considered from the weakly ionized that gives positive hydrogen ions and negative hydroxide ions.

The water has a neutral effect

The water has a neutral effect on the litmus paper as when it is ionized, it gives equal numbers of the positive hydrogen ions (which are responsible for the acidic property), and the negative ions ( which are responsible for the basic property).

The resistance of the water to decomposition 

The water does not decompose into its elements (hydrogen and oxygen) under normal conditions or even by the effect of the heat that helps to keep the aqueous solutions inside the cells of the living organisms.

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Water properties, structure, pollutants, & protection of water from pollution

The importance of the water and its structure

Ionization of water, Hydrogen Exponent (pH value), Solubility product & Hydrolysis of salt solutions

The water pollutants and the protection of the water from the pollution

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