Types of mixtures and solutions
Types of mixtures
Mixture means the thing which contains two or more different substances in any ratio such as the seawater , granite and gasoline , The mixtures can be classified according to their homogeneity into two types which are homogeneous ( solutions ) and heterogeneous ( colloids and suspensions ) .
Their components can be distinguished by the naked eye , Such as Table salt in kerosene , Cane-sugar in kerosene , Cobalt ( II ) chloride in kerosene and oil in water .
Solutions are necessary in the biological processes that occur inside the living organisms .
If you add a small quantity of a substance ( as sugar ) to a large amount of another substance ( as water ) and disappear in it , Therefore , Sugar is a solute , water is a solvent and the produced mixture is a solution .
Solute is the minor component that has the lesser ratio in the solution , Solvent is the major component that has the larger ratio in the solution , Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances which are chemically unreacted .
The sweat taste of the sugar solution in water is the same in all of its parts because of the homogeneity of the sugar solution , as each part of the solution contains the same amount concentration ) of sugar .
Types of solutions
Solutions can be classified according to the physical state of the solvent , The ability to conduct electricity and the degree of saturation .
According to the physical state of the solvent
Solutions are divided into gaseous solutions , liquid solutions and solid solutions .
Gaseous solutions : when the solute is gas and solvent is gas such as atmospheric air & natural gas , when the solute is gas and solvent is liquid such as soft drinks & oxygen dissolved in the water .
Liquid solutions : when the solute is liquid and the solvent is liquid such as alcohol in water , ethylene glycol ( antifreeze ) in water , when the solute is solid and the solvent is liquid such as sugar or salt in water .
Solid solutions : when the solute is gas and the solvent is solid such as hydrogen gas on palladium or platinum , when the solute is liquid and the solvent is solid such as liquid mercury dissolved in solid silver ( silver amalgam ) Hg (l) / Ag (s) , when the solute is solid and the solvent is solid such as alloys ( nickel-chrome alloy ) .
Scientific background knowledge
Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract the electrons of the bond to itself .
Polar bond : it is the covalent bond between two atoms which are different in electronegativity , The higher electronegative atom carries a partial negative charge ( δ− ) , while the other atom carries a partial positive charge ( δ+ ) .
Polar molecules : They are the molecules that have an end carrying a partial positive ( δ+) and another end carrying a partial negative charge ( δ− ) .
Polar compound : it is the compound which has a polar covalent bond .
The degree of polarity depends on : Difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms , Geometry of the molecule and bond angles .
Water is considered as a famous polar solvent because this polarity attributed to the presence of two polar bonds ( because the electronegativity of oxygen is higher than that of hydrogen ) , The structure of water molecule contains large bond angle = 104.5 degree .
You can read this article about Solutions of electrolytes & non-electrolytes and Degree of saturation