Chemical structure and importance of living organisms’ bodies ( carbohydrates )

The biological macromolecules ( The polymers )

They are large organic compounds made up of smaller molecules ( monomers ) combined together by polymerization processpolymerization is a process by which monomers are combined together to form the polymer .

The polymers are biological macromolecules formed by the combination of smaller molecules throughout polymerization process such as proteins , lipids and carbohydrates .

The structural sequence of the living organisms

The living organisms’ bodies consist of the systems , the systems are formed of organs that are formed of tissues , The tissues are formed of the cells , The cells are formed of organelles that are formed of molecules , Molecules are formed of atoms .

Classifications of molecules that enter in the living organisms’ cells

 All cells of living organisms are made up of Organic compounds and Inorganic compounds .

Organic compounds are compounds that mainly contain carbon ( C ) and hydrogen ( H ) atoms , They may contain other elements such as oxygen and nitrogen such as Biological macromolecules that include the carbohydrates , lipids , proteins and nucleic acids .

Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon atoms , Such as water H2O and Mineral salts ( such as NaCl ) .

Classification of the biological macromolecules 

The biological macromolecules are classified into four groups according to their molecular structure and the functions they perform , These four groups are Carbohydrates , lipids , proteins and nucleic acids .

Chemical structure and importance of living organisms’ bodies

Chemical structure of living organisms’ bodies


They are biological macromolecules ( polymers ) made up of many smaller molecules ( monomers ) called the monosaccharides , They include the sugars , starches and fibres .

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon ( C ) , hydrogen ( H ) and oxygen ( O ) atoms in ratio ( 1 : 2 : 1 ) , General formula of Carbohydrates :  (CH2O)n  , such as  Glucose C6H12O6 .

Carbohydrates Classification

The carbohydrates are classified according their molecular structure into simple sugars ( Monosaccharides , Disaccharides ) and the complex sugars ( the polysaccharides ) .

Monosaccharides such as Glucose , Fructose , Galactose & Ribose .

Disaccharides such as lactose , Maltose & Sucrose .

Polysaccharides such as Starch , Cellulose & Glycogen .

Simple sugars

Properties : They are water soluble , They have low molecular weight and they have a sweet taste .

Simple sugars types


Molecular structure : They are made up only of one molecule consisted of a chain of carbon atoms ( 3 : 6 atoms ) , each of them is connected to oxygen and hydrogen atoms in a certain way , Therefore , monosaccharides are the simplest type of sugars .

Monosaccharides such as Glucose ( grape sugar ) , Fructose ( fruit sugar ) , Galactose ( made in the glands that produce milk ) , Ribose ( pentose sugar ) ( it has 5 C atoms ) .


Molecular structure : They are made up of two molecules of monosaccharides linked together to form a disaccharide molecule .

Disaccharides such as Lactose ( milk sugar ) ( It is formed of Glucose molecule + Galactose molecule ) , Maltose ( malt sugar ) ( It is formed of Glucose molecule + Glucose molecule ) , Sucrose ( cane sugar ) ( It is formed of Glucose molecule + Fructose molecule ) .

Role of monosaccharides in energy transferring processes inside the cells :

During glucose oxidation inside mitochondria :

The energy that stored in the chemical bonds of glucose is released to be stored in the compound that is called adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) .

Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) is then transferred into the other places in the cell to use the stored energy in it for performing all vital processes inside the cell .

Complex sugars ( polysaccharides )

Properties : They are insoluble in water , They have molecular weight and they do not have a sweet taste .

Molecular structure : They made up of many molecules of monosaccharides linked together .

Complex sugars such as Starch , Cellulose and Glycogen ( Each molecule of them consists of  glucose molecules linked together by different ways ) .

Life application

Blue Benedict’s reagent is used for detecting simple sugars in the blood and urine .

Diabetic and obese patients must keep themselves away from taking sugary and starchy substances .

Importance of carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are one of basic and fast resources for obtaining the energy .

Carbohydrates are used for storing energy in organisms’ bodies until they require it , where plants store carbohydrates in the form of starches , Humans and animals store carbohydrates in the form of glycogen in cells of liver and muscles .

Carbohydrates are the basic component of some parts of the cell , Such as Cellulose enters in structure of cell walls of plant cells , Carbohydrates enter in structure of cell membranes and protoplasm .

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