Mitotic cell division ( Mitosis ) or indirect cell division
The cell division
You should understand that the cell division is a complicated process through which the living cell divides into two cells or more to aim the growth or the reproduction , There are two types of cell division : Mitotic cell division ( Mitosis ) or indirect cell division and Meiotic cell division ( Meiosis ) or reduction division .
Do you know that Mitosis occurs in the somatic cells such as all the body cells except the reproduction cells and the neural cells , The roots cells , the stems cells and the leaves cells ( in the plants ) ?
You should know that Mitosis plays an important role in the growth of living organisms ( the animals and the plants ) , in compensation of the damaged cells , And in completing the asexual reproduction process .
You must understand that the cell passes through a phase called the interphase , During the interphase before starting Mitosis , the cell prepares for division ( through some important biological processes ) , And the amount of genetic material ( DNA ) duplicates .
- Prophase : You should understand that the chromatin reticulum condenses , and it appears in the form of long , thin and double strings ( the chromosomes ) , You know that the network of filamentous fibers called the spindle fibers that is formed extending between the two poles of the cell , The nuclear and nucleolus membrane disappear .
- Metaphase : You should know that the chromosomes which are connected with the spindle fibers are arranged along the cell equator in this phase .
- Anaphase : You must know that in this phase , the centromere of each chromosome splits lengthwise into two halves , so , the chromatids separate from each other , The spindle fibres begin to shrink and two identical groups of chromosomes ( each contain single chromatid ) are formed , And each group of chromosomes migrate towards one of the cell’s poles .
- Telophase : You must understand that when the spindle fibers disappear , The nuclear membrane is formed at each pole of the cell surrounding by the chromosomes leading to formation of two new nuclei , And at the end of this phase , the cell is divided into two new cells , the number of chromosomes in each of them is equal to the number of chromosomes of the parent cell ( 2N ) .
You must understand that the changes which occur in the telophase are called the adverse changes as they inverse the changes which occur in the prophase stage , some cells in the human body are not divided at all such as the nerve cells and red blood cells .
You should know that the spindle fibers are formed from condensing the cytoplasm at the cell poles in the plant cell , And the spindle fibers are formed by the centrosome in the animal cell .
You should know that some somatic cells such as the liver cells are not divided in the normal conditions but they retain the ability to divide under certain circumstances .
Everyone should know that if the liver gets injured or a part of it is cut , the remaining cells undergo many mitotic divisions to compensate the missing part , It is the scientific basis used in the liver transplantation .