Skeletal system , Importance of Cartilages , Joints , Ligaments & Tendons


Cartilages are a type of connective tissues that consists of cartilaginous cells , They do not contain blood vessels , So , they get food and oxygen from the bone cells by diffusion , Cartilages protect the bones from corrosion , as a result of the continuous friction between them .

Cartilages found usually at the tips of bones , especially at the joints and between the vertebrae of vertebral column , The cartilages from some body parts such as ears , nose and bronchioles of lungs .


In the human skeleton , there are three types of joints which are : 

  1. Fibrous joints : These joints connect the bones of skull together through its serrated tips , They don’t allow movement , The bones are fused with fibrous tissues at these joints and by growing older , these fibrous tissues change into bony tissues .
  2. Cartilaginous joints : They are joints that connect between the ends of some adjacent bones , They allow a very limited movement , They are found between the vertebrae of vertebral column .
  3. Synovial joints : They represent most of body joints , They are flexible joints which bear shocks ( trauma ) , They allow the movement easily , where :

The bones which in contact with these joints are covered with a delicate layer of a transparent smooth cartilaginous substance which allow the movement of bones easily with less friction , They contain a synovial fluid which facilitates the sliding of cartilages that cover the tips of bones .



The synovial joints are divided according to their movement into Limited movement joints and Wide movement joints :

  1. Limited movement joints are joints which allow the movement of one of the bones in one direction only such as elbow joints and knee joints .
  2. Wide movement joints are the joints which allow the movement of the bones in many different directions such as shoulder and hip joints .


They are separated bundles of fibrous connective tissue , where their tips are fixed on the two bones of the joint , Their fibers are characterized by :

  • being strong and durable .
  • The presence of a degree of elasticity to allow a little increase in their length , in order not to be cut during the exposure of the joint to an external pressure .

Function : They link the bones with each other at the joints , They determine the movement of bones at the joints in different direction .

Example : Ligaments of the knee joints which are :

  1. Anterior of the cruciate ligament .
  2. Posterior cruciate ligament .
  3. Medial collateral ligament .
  4. Lateral collateral ligament .

In some cases , the ligaments may be ruptured , due to the twisting of some joints as in the case of cruciate ligament in the knee joint .


They are strong connective tissue , They link the muscles with bones at the joints which allow the movement during the concentration and the relaxation of muscles , Example : Achilles tendon .

Its importance : Achilles tendon connects the gastrocnemius muscle with the heel bone .

Damage of Achilles tendon

Causes :

  • vigorous effort
  • Sudden contraction of gastrocnemius muscle .
  • Loss of elasticity in the gastrocnemius muscle .

Symptoms :

  • Inability of walking
  • Acute pain
  • Heavy movement of foot .

Treatments :

  • Using anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs 
  • Using a medical splint .
  • Surgical intervention which does not carry out , except during the complete tearing of the tendon .

Skeletal system , Axial skeleton ( vertebral column , Skull & thoracic cage )

Skeletal system , Appendicular skeleton structure and importance

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