Types of movement in living organisms & Movement in plant

Movement is a phenomenon which characterizes all the living organisms and it arises by itself , as a result of the exposure of the living organism to a stimulus , therefore the living organism may respond positively or negatively and in the both cases the response occurs by movement .

Types of movement in living organisms

  1. Continuous movement : occurs inside each cell of the living organism cells for the continuity of its vital activities , such as cytoplasmic streaming .
  2. Positional movement : occurs in some organs of the living organism , such as peristalsis movement in the intestines of vertebrates .
  3. Total movement : By which the living organism can move from a place to another in order to search for food or a mate or to avoid some dangers , It leads to the spread of the animal in nature and as the means of movement was strong and fast , the circle of animal spread increases .
Conditions of movement and keeping the balance in living organisms
  1. The animal must possess a solid support ( skeleton ) to which the muscles are attached to enable the animal to move and keep its balance .
  2. The skeleton must consist of segments that are attached to each other by joints to facilitate the movement .

The skeleton may be :

  • External as in arthropods .
  • Internal as in vertebrates that may be cartilaginous as in cartilaginous fishes ( shark and ray fish ) , Bony as in bony fishes ( mullet and tilapia fish ) . 

Movement in plant

The types of movement differ in plant according to the type of stimuli , including :

Movement in plant

Movement in plant

Touch movement

When the leaflets of Mimosa plant are touched , they collapse in a successive order and followed by the petioles , as if they wilt .

Sleeping and awake movement

As in Mimosa plant and some leguminous , where : The leaflets approach from each other during darkness which indicates a sleeping movement , the leaflets get away from each other during daylight which indicates an awake movement .

Tropism 

As in all plants , where the different parts of the plant respond to different stimuli such as light , humidity and gravity .

Haptotropism ( Pulling movement ) 

Pulling movement in the tendrils of climbing plants ( as in peas )

It occurs by the tendrils and needs a solid support ( object ) , where :

  • The tendril raises itself in the air to make a contact with a solid object .
  • It immediately twines closely around the object for a few turn in a spiral form .
  • Its length decreases , and so that the plant stem approaches towards the support and grows vertically .
  • The tendril becomes thickened after the erection of the stem vertically , due to the lay down of a considerable amount of the mechanical tissues by the formation of a supporting tissue and it becomes stronger .

If the tendril does not meet a support during its twining movement , it wilts and dies , The twining of the tendril around the support , due to the slow growth of the side that is in contact with the support , the accelerated growth of the tendril side that is away from the support .

Pulling movement in roots of corms and bulbs 

It occurs by the pulling roots , where : The corm or bulb roots contract ( shrink ) , then the plant is pulled downwards , The corm or bulb is pulled downwards to a suitable level in the soil .

Importance of this movement : The subterranean storing stem ( corm or bulb ) always remains at a suitable distance from the soil surface by the help of these pulling roots which increases its support and protects its aerial parts against the winds effect .

Cytoplasmic streaming

One of the main characteristics of the living cytoplasm is its continuous rotation inside the cell , This movement is shown , when examining Elodea leaf cells ( aquatic plant ) under the high power of microscope , where we can observe the following :

  • The inner wall of cell is lined by a thin layer of cytoplasm .
  • The cytoplasm is streaming in a continuous rotational movement in one direction inside the cell .
  • This movement is indicated by the movement of chloroplasts that are embedded in the cytoplasm .

Sensitivity in plants ( Tropism types , response to touch and darkness )

Muscular system , Structure of skeletal muscle , Muscles properties & functions

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