The states of matter ( solid , liquid , gas , plasma )

The states of matter

States of matter

States of matter

All matters have a mass , and take up space ,  the state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on , and there are four states of matter observable in our life which are solid , liquid , gas and plasma .

The solid state

The solid is the state in which matter maintains a definite ( fixed ) volume and shape , the motion of its particles is limited motion ( oscillatory motion ) , they are packed closely together .

The intermolecular forces between the solid particles are very strong  that the particles can not move freely , they can only vibrate , Some examples of solid state such as iron , aluminum and copper .

The solid has very small intermolecular spaces , it can   transform into a liquid through melting process , the  liquid can change into a solid by freezing process , and the solid can change into gas by sublimation process .

The liquid state

The liquid is the state in which matter adapts to the shape of its container but varies only slightly in volume , the liquid state has definite volume and indefinite shape if the temperature and pressure are constant .

Motion of the liquid particles is more free , the intermolecular spaces between its particles are relatively large , and the intermolecular forces are relatively weak , Examples of liquid state such as the water , alcohol , the oil , the milk and the juice  .

Liquid can be changed to gas by heating at constant pressure to the substance’s boiling point or through reduction of pressure at constant temperature , and it is called the evaporation process .

The gaseous state

The gas is the state in which matter expands to occupy the volume and shape of its container and it has indefinite shape and indefinite volume , The motion of  gas molecules is completely free ( unlimited ) , the intermolecular spaces are very large and the intermolecular forces are very weak or almost not existed .

The gas can be called a vapour at a temperature below its critical temperature , and the vapour can be liquefied through compression without cooling , Examples of gaseous state such as carbon dioxide , oxygen and the water vapour .

The plasma state

The plasma does not have definite shape or volume , it is electrically conductive , it produces magnetic fields and electric currents , and respond strongly to electromagnetic forces .

Lighting , electric sparks , the fluorescent lights , neon lights , plasma televisions , some types of flame and the stares are examples of illuminated matter in the plasma state .

The gas is usually changed to the plasma in one of two ways , when there is a huge voltage difference between two points , or by exposing it to extremely high temperatures .

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