The sexual reproduction is a source of genetic variations

The sexual reproduction

The sexual reproduction is a process by which the living organism produces the individuals with the traits differ from the parents , It occurs through two parental individuals , One is the male and the other is a female , It occurs in most higher living organisms of the plants and the animals .

The sexual reproduction depends on two processes which are the gametes formation and the fertilization .

The gametes formation , The gametes of male and female are formed in the reproductive cells by the meiotic division , And they contain half the chromosomes number ( N ) of the organism’s reproductive cells ( 2 N ) .

the fertilization is the combination of a male gamete ( N ) and a female gamete ( N ) to form a zygote ( 2 N ) which contains the normal number of chromosomes of the organism . 

The sexual reproduction

The sexual reproduction

The zygote contains the genetic material from both the parents , and when it grows , it gives a new offspring with the traits of its parents , The zygote is a cell produced due to the fertilization and it contains the complete number of chromosomes of the living organisms .

The sexual reproduction is a source of genetic variation as the offspring resulted from the sexual reproduction gets his genetic traits from two sources , the male and the female .

The resulted offspring has new genetic traits that combine the parents’ traits , So , the sexual reproduction is a source of genetic variation from the parents to the children .

The chromosomes number of gametes is just ( N ) because the gametes are produced from the meiotic division , after the fertilization, the zygote of ( 2 N ) is produced which grows performing the organism .

The offspring’s DNA is different , It is prepared for any changes , Any diseases that affects some of the offspring will not affect all of them , The DNA variation causes  the evolution , while the sexual reproduction takes time and energy to find the mate .

The sexual reproduction is the combination of ( the haploid , or a single set of unpaired chromosomes ) reproductive cells from two individuals to form a third ( diploid , or a pair of each type of chromosome ) unique offspring .

The sexual reproduction produces the offspring with the novel combinations of genes , It can be an adaptive advantage in the unstable or the unpredictable environments , As the humans , We are used to thinking of the animals as they have two separate sexes , the male and the female , in the animal kingdom , there are many variations on them .


Hermaphroditism occurs in the animals where one individual has both male and female reproductive parts , The invertebrates , such as the earthworms , the slugs , the tapeworms and the snails are often hermaphroditic .

Hermaphrodites may self-fertilize or may mate with another of their species , fertilizing each other and both produce the offspring , The self fertilization is common in the animals that have limited mobility or are not motile such as the barnacles and the clams .

Reproduction , Types of sexual reproduction ( Conjugation , Reproduction by sexual gametes )

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