How does the fertilization process take place in the human ?

The fertilization process in the human

The fertilization is the fusion of the nucleus of male gamete ( the sperm ) with the nucleus of the female gamete ( the ovum ) to form the zygote ( the fertilized egg ) , The body of living organism consists of cells , each cell contains a nucleus that contains the genetic materials ( the chromosomes ) of the species .

The chromosomes ( genetic material ) carry the gens which responsible for the hereditary traits of the organism ( the species ) , The ovum and the sperm differ from any other cell in the number of chromosomes in the nucleus , where the nucleus of the ovum and the sperm contains only half the number of chromosomes ( the genetic material ) .

Sperm and ovum

The sperm and the  ovum

In the human , the nucleus of the body cell contains 46 chromosomes, while the nucleus of a sperm or an ovum contains 23 chromosomes.

How does the fertilization process take place in the human ?

During the mating , the male secretes billions of the sperms which move from the vagina towards the uterus then to the fallopian tubes .

The penetration of the sperm

The penetration of the sperm inside the ovum

The female produces only one ovum in the fourteenth day of the beginning of the menstrual cycle , and the sperms rush towards the ovum at the beginning of the fallopian tubes .

The head of the sperm secretes the enzymes which dissolve the cellular membrane of ovum and facilitates its penetration inside the ovum , After the penetration of the sperm , the ovum surrounds itself with a membrane that prevents the penetration of any other sperm .

The nucleus of the sperm ( which contains 23 chromosomes ) fuses with the nucleus of the ovum ( which contains 23 chromosomes ) to form the zygote ( the fertilized ovum ) that contains a nucleus with 23 pairs of chromosomes ( 46 chromosomes ) .

Fertilization process

The fertilization process

The zygote transfers to the uterus to be implanted in its lining , and it divides many successive divisions into many cells that differentiate and continue to grow forming the embryo ( the fetus ) , The period between the fertilization and the delivery is know as the pregnancy period which extends about 9 months .

The new born baby will carry the genetic traits of his parents as his cells contain 23 chromosomes coming from his mother ( the ovum ) and 23 chromosomes coming from his father ( the sperm ) .

In case of failure of fertilization , the endomtrium falls down and the blood capillaries detach causing the blood to flow out of the vagina for 4 to 5 days in a process known as the menstruation .

Placenta importance in the fetal development and the most common placental problems

Reproduction , Types of sexual reproduction ( Conjugation , Reproduction by sexual gametes )

Structure of Female genital system & ovum , Oogenesis stages & Menstrual cycle

Fertilization process , Pregnancy and the stages of embryonic development

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