Differentiation of cells and diversity of plant tissues

Organization of living organisms

The human body is composed of many systems integrate together forming the body of the living organism , such as the circulatory , nervous , digestive , respiratory , excretory and reproductive systems .

We will take the human as an example of multicellular living organisms to identify his body building , The system is composed of a group of organs work together , such as the circulatory system which consists of the heart , blood and blood vessels .

The organ is composed of a group of tissues organized together to perform certain functions , such as the heart which consists of a cardiac muscular tissue , nervous tissue and connective tissue that collaborate together to pump the blood from the heart to all body parts .

The tissue is composed of a group of cells specialized in their work and if these cells forming the tissue are symmetrical with each other in the structure , shape and function , the tissue is called simple tissue and if there are more than one type of cells , the tissue is called compound tissue .

Simple tissue consists of only one type of cells that similar in structure , shape and function , Compound tissue consists of more than one type of cells .

Tissues are varied depending on the difference and diversity of living organisms , vital activities and functions they perform .

Human body consists of many systems that consist of many organs , The organs consist of many tissues , The tissues consist of many cells .

Plant tissues

Plant tissues

Plant tissues

Plant tissues can be differentiated into simple and compound tissues , Simple tissues such as ( Collenchyma tissue , Parenchyma tissue and Sclerenchyma tissue ) , Compound tissues such as Conductive tissues ( Xylem tissue and phloem tissue ) .

Simple tissues

Parenchyma tissue

Functions : Do photosynthesis , Store nutrients such as starch and responsible for aeration , It is a living tissue , its cells are characterized by the following :

Oval or rounded shaped , Their walls are thin and elastic , There are spaces ( intercellular spaces ) between them for aeration , It contains chloroplasts , chromoplasts or leucoplasts , It contains one big vacuole or more filled with water and mineral salts .

Collenchyma tissue

It is a living tissue , its cells are characterized by the following : Somewhat rectangular shaped , Their walls irregularly thickened with cellulose .

Function : Supporting the plant by acquiring it a suitable elasticity .

Sclerenchyma tissue

It is a non-living tissue , its cells are characterized by : their walls are thickened by lignin substance in addition to cellulose and solid tissue .

Functions : Strengthening and supporting the plant by acquiring it the hardness and elasticity .

Compound tissues

Xylem tissue

Structure : It consists of vessels , tracheids and parenchyma cells , The vessels are tubes , each of them is made up of a vertical row of cells  , where : protoplasm and transverse walls were disappeared , Lignin substance was deposited on inner surface of their walls at the inside .

So , these cells are converted into long wide vessels transporting the water and salts , their length ranges from few centimeters to several metres as in high trees .

The tracheids : Each of them is composed of one cell , where protoplasm disappeared from it , Their walls get lignified .

Functions : Supporting the plant , Transporting the water and salts from the root to the stem and leaves .

Phloem tissue

Structure : It consists of sieve tubes and companion cells .

The sieve tubes originate from compact cells , vertically above each other , where : Their nuclei disappeared , Their separating walls became perforated ( So , they are called sieve plates ) through which cytoplasm passes in the form of cytoplasmic strands .

The companion cells are living cells located adjacent to the sieve tubes to provide them with the energy they required to perform their function .

Function : Transporting the nutrients resulted in photosynthesis from the leaves to the other plant parts .

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